Cover: A lone gemsbok Oryx gazelle, Kalahari region. African antelope, as prey animals, depend on competent cardiovascular performance for their survival. Scaling analysis by Snelling et al. (jeb184713) shows that smaller species have relatively larger hearts, with relatively more capillaries and mitochondria packed into their ventricular tissue, compared with larger species – trends that reflect the inherently higher cardiac work rate and greater predation pressure of smaller antelope in their natural habitats of Africa. Photo credit: ©Barry Peiser Wildlife Photography.
- PDF Icon PDF LinkTable of contents
- PDF Icon PDF LinkIssue info
Physiology, activity and costs of parental care in birds
Summary: Contrary to expectation, parental care might not involve sustained, high-intensity activity; that is, it might not be ‘hard work’ and, consequently, costs of reproduction and physiological signatures of costs might rarely be experienced.
Rethinking the evolution of the human foot: insights from experimental research
Summary: Recent biomechanical models of human foot function and experimental locomotion data from great apes suggest that the human foot evolved to facilitate both bipedal walking and running.
Chirping and asymmetric jamming avoidance responses in the electric fish Distocyclus conirostris
Summary: An asymmetric jamming avoidance response in a gregarious electric fish with a low-frequency electric organ discharge could function in communication as well as jamming avoidance.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
Automated measurement of upper thermal limits in small aquatic animals
Summary: We present a method for the automated measurement of upper thermal tolerance in small aquatic organisms from video data.
A machine vision system for zooplankton behavioural studies: a case study on the phototactic behaviour of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) during sound and ultrasound stimuli
Summary: A new method for observing the behaviour of zooplankton using a machine vision system, used here to assess the effects of ultrasound on phototactic behaviour of salmon lice.
Synaptic convergence of afferent inputs in primary infrared-sensitive nucleus (LTTD) neurons of rattlesnakes (Crotalinae) as the origin for sensory contrast enhancement
Editors' Choice: Synaptic processing in the hindbrain of infrared-sensitive rattlesnakes provides contrast enhancement and a potential basis for directional sensitive infrared motion recognition, reminiscent of computational mechanisms in the visual system.
Cardiorespiratory interactions in the Pacific spiny dogfish, Squalus suckleyi
Summary: In Pacific spiny dogfish, cardiorespiratory synchrony only occurs during progressive hyperoxia post-atropine, when heart rate is uninhibited and ventilation is slowed owing to the increase in available oxygen.
Vocal tract modelling in fallow deer: are male groans nasalized?
Highlighted Article: CT scans of fallow deer specimens show that the nasal cavities are likely to be involved in the production of their groans.
The effect of chronic and acute stressors, and their interaction, on testes function: an experimental test during testicular recrudescence
Summary: Exposure to an acute stressor downregulated testosterone production, but this effect was absent in chronically disturbed birds. The acute stressor had a strong effect on the testicular transcriptome, whereas chronic disturbance had a negligible effect.
Hypoxia-induced changes in hemoglobins of Lake Victoria cichlids
Summary: Four cichlids of the Lake Victoria species flock raised under hypoxia exhibit a remarkable change in isohemoglobin pattern, corresponding with improved hemoglobin O2-binding affinity.
Fluid shift versus body size: changes of hematological parameters and body fluid volume in hindlimb-unloaded mice, rats and rabbits
Summary: Allometric investigation of hematological parameters and body fluid volume changes during simulated microgravity reveals that red blood cell count decrease is size independent, while extracellular fluid volume increase is proportional to body size.
Head-mounted sensors reveal visual attention of free-flying homing pigeons
Highlighted Article: A lightweight custom-made logger equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and GPS revealed head-gaze movement during homing flights in pigeons.
Avian thermoregulation in the heat: is evaporative cooling more economical in nocturnal birds?
Summary: Caprimulgids and Australian owlet-nightjars displayed allometrically lower water losses compared with diurnal birds, whereas owls exhibited water losses comparable to those of similarly sized diurnal birds.
Scaling of morphology and ultrastructure of hearts among wild African antelope
Summary: Wild African antelope show proportionality between capillary and mitochondrial investments of the heart, indicating economy of design at the cellular level of the oxygen cascade in an aerobic organ.
Cooler snakes respond more strongly to infrared stimuli, but we have no idea why
Summary: Physiological and biochemical process rates and, usually, behavioral responsiveness increase with temperature. Remarkably, rattlesnakes sensing warm moving targets with their facial pits are less responsive as body temperature increases.
Fin and body neuromuscular coordination changes during walking and swimming in Polypterus senegalus
Summary: Polypterus senegalus use intermittent high-intensity activity of fin and mid-body muscles during walking compared with more constant, moderate-intensity activity of all muscles during swimming.
Correction: The reluctant visitor: an alkaloid in toxic nectar can reduce olfactory learning and memory in Asian honey bees (doi:10.1242/jeb.168344)
Meet the JEB Editors @ SEB 2023
Come and meet the JEB team at the Society for Experimental Biology centenary conference from 4-7 July in Edinburgh, UK. Visit exhibition stand 13/15 to pick up JEB centenary goodies, including our new ‘100 years of discovery’ T shirt, and join our Meet the JEB Editors event on Thursday 6 July at 12.30 at Platform 5 to find out more about the journal and chat to Editors including EiC Craig Franklin, Monitoring Editors Sanjay Sane, Trish Schulte and John Terblanche and the in-house News and Reviews team.
New funding schemes for junior faculty staff
In celebration of our 100th anniversary, JEB has launched two new grants to support junior faculty staff working in animal comparative physiology and biomechanics who are within five years of setting up their first lab/research group. Check out our ECR Visiting Fellowships and Research Partnership Kickstart Travel Grants. First deadline for applications is 15 July 2023.
JEB@100: an interview with Monitoring Editor Katie Gilmour
Katie Gilmour tells us how she first encountered the JEB Editorial team as a graduate student at the University of Cambridge, UK, and how she would like to have a Star Trek tricorder to monitor fish non-invasively in the field.
The Forest of Biologists
The Forest of Biologists is a biodiversity initiative created by The Company of Biologists, with support from the Woodland Trust. For every Research and Review article published in Journal of Experimental Biology a native tree is planted in a UK forest. In addition to this we are protecting and restoring ancient woodland and are dedicating these trees to our peer reviewers. Visit our virtual forest to learn more.
Centenary Review - Adaptive echolocation behavior
Cynthia F. Moss and colleagues discuss the behaviours used by echolocating mammals to track and intercept moving prey, interrogate dynamic sonar scenes, and exploit visual and passive acoustic stimuli.
Crucial DNA at crux of insect wing size evolution
Keity Farfán-Pira and colleagues have revealed that a tiny region of regulatory DNA in the vestigial gene governs whether insect wings are large or small and has played a key role in the evolution of insect wing size.