Cover: Many anemone shrimp, such as this Periclimenes yucatanicus, have bodies that are so transparent that they look almost invisible on their background. However, transparency can be temporarily disrupted by environmental or physiological stressors. Anemone shrimp become opaque after only a few tail flips, an escape behavior. Bagge et al. (pp. 4225–4233) describe one mechanism for this disruption in transparency. Exercise-induced increases in blood volume between muscle fibers create regions of low refractive index fluid between high refractive index muscles. Photo credit: Laura E. Bagge.
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Linking the ‘why’ and ‘how’ of ageing: evidence for somatotropic control of long-term memory function in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis
Summary: Natural selection optimizes the way organisms spend their limiting resources on growth, reproduction and survival. We tie this process to learning performance in a snail model of neuronal ageing.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
Giving invertebrates an eye exam: an ophthalmoscope that utilizes the autofluorescence of photoreceptors
Summary: We describe a micro-ophthalmoscope that takes advantage of autofluorescent properties of invertebrate photoreceptors and allows for in vivo testing of refractive errors in small arthropod eyes.
Silencing and augmentation of IAG hormone transcripts in adult Macrobrachium rosenbergii males affects morphotype transformation
Summary: Morphotype transformation in adult Macrobrachium rosenbergii males from orange to blue claw on augmentation of insulin-like androgenic gland hormone.
Rapid expansion of pigmentation genes in penaeid shrimp with absolute preservation of function
Summary: The regulation and molecular evolution of pigmentation in crustaceans is more complex than initially thought, with multiple lineage-specific duplications and functional redundancy in shrimp pigmentation genes.
Characterizing Chilean blue whale vocalizations with DTAGs: a test of using tag accelerometers for caller identification
Summary: Characterization of the Chilean blue whale vocal repertoire and a modified method of using DTAG accelerometers to identify calling blue whales.
Nurse honeybee workers tend capped brood, which does not require feeding, around the clock
Summary: Honeybee workers tend larvae around the clock; capped brood that is not fed, but not brood pheromones, attracts similar around-the-clock tending by individually isolated ‘nurse’ bees.
Modulation of muscle–tendon interaction in the human triceps surae during an energy dissipation task
Summary: During a simple landing task, the compliance of elastic structures and muscle activity modulate energy absorption and dissipation via active lengthening of the triceps surae fascicles.
Lack of behavioural responses of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) indicate limited effectiveness of sonar mitigation
Highlighted Article: Variation in behavioural responses of humpback whales limits the effectiveness of a ramp-up procedure used to mitigate physiological effects of naval sonar on marine animals.
Circannual testis and moult cycles persist under photoperiods that disrupt circadian activity and clock gene cycles in spotted munia
Summary: The prevailing light environment and circadian clock do not control circannual timing of reproductive phenotypes in spotted munia, suggesting independent circadian and circannual rhythm generation in seasonally breeding species.
Lower limb biomechanical analysis during an unanticipated step on a bump reveals specific adaptations of walking on uneven terrains
Summary: Investigation of an unanticipated step on uneven ground reveals two distinct adaptive strategies: an ankle-based strategy when stepping with the forefoot, and a hip-based strategy when stepping with the rearfoot.
Effects of a titin mutation on negative work during stretch–shortening cycles in skeletal muscles
Summary: Active muscles from mice with a small titin deletion exhibit large deficits in net negative work, suggesting that titin contributes to energy storage and dissipation during stretch–shortening cycles.
Divergent respiratory and cardiovascular responses to hypoxia in bar-headed geese and Andean birds
Highlighted Article: When exposed to progressive hypoxia, bar-headed geese (biannual high-altitude migrators) increase ventilation and heart rate, whereas Andean geese (lifelong high-altitude residents) increase lung oxygen extraction and cardiac stroke volume.
Disentangling drivers of reproductive performance in urban great tits: a food supplementation experiment
Summary: Food supplementation could have a negative impact on breeding performance of wild urban great tits.
Microbiome symbionts and diet diversity incur costs on the immune system of insect larvae
Summary: Having high numbers of midgut symbionts may bring costs to a host organism, which is a crucial finding for understanding the evolution of host–symbiont interactions.
It's not all black and white: visual scene parameters influence optokinetic reflex performance in Xenopus laevis tadpoles
Highlighted Article: Gaze-stabilizing optokinetic reflexes in Xenopus laevis tadpoles are systematically influenced by the parameters of the visual scene, likely because of properties of retinal motion processing.
Transparent anemone shrimp (Ancylomenes pedersoni) become opaque after exercise and physiological stress in correlation with increased hemolymph perfusion
Summary: Transparency in shrimp is reversibly disrupted after exposure to physiological or environmental stressors; the increase in opacity is associated with a corresponding increase in hemolymph perfusion to the abdominal musculature.
The effects of pH and Pi on tension and Ca2+ sensitivity of ventricular myofilaments from the anoxia-tolerant painted turtle
Summary: Myofilament contractility of turtle ventricle is more sensitive to physiological levels of acidosis than to increased inorganic phosphate. The myofilament calcium sensitivities of ventricles from turtles and other ectotherms are similar.
Swimming with multiple propulsors: measurement and comparison of swimming gaits in three species of neotropical cichlids
Summary: Differently shaped fish species use varying combinations of body–caudal fin and pectoral fin propulsion at different speeds. Gait is characterized as a trajectory through propulsive parameter space for analysis and comparison.
Elastic ankle muscle–tendon interactions are adjusted to produce acceleration during walking in humans
Summary: A novel mechanism is presented by which human ankle muscles use their elastic tendons to contribute mechanical work and produce acceleration during walking gait.
Cold tolerance of Drosophila species is tightly linked to the epithelial K+ transport capacity of the Malpighian tubules and rectal pads
Summary: The scanning ion-selective electrode technique reveals that cold tolerance in Drosophila is linked to the ability to maintain ion balance through adaptive changes in epithelial K+ transport.
A circuit for detection of interaural time differences in the nucleus laminaris of turtles
Summary: Turtles share auditory brainstem connectivity with other reptiles, as well as birds, and encode interaural time differences in the nucleus laminaris.
Physiological effects of increased foraging effort in a small passerine
Summary: Tests on the effects of experimentally increased foraging effort on a suite of physiological metrics in a small passerine provide evidence for physiological adjustments and cost of high workload associated with foraging.
Thermal history and gape of individual Mytilus californianus correlate with oxidative damage and thermoprotective osmolytes
Highlighted Article: Variation in thermal experience and behavior contributes to inter-individual physiological variation within intertidal mussel beds, providing valuable insight into physiological plasticity and variable costs of defending against environmental stress.
Multimodal in situ datalogging quantifies inter-individual variation in thermal experience and persistent origin effects on gaping behavior among intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus)
Summary: Biologging of mussels in the rocky intertidal zone reveals substantial temperature differences over the scale of centimeters, while environmental conditions and mussel origin underlie variation in shell gaping behavior.
Meet the JEB Editors @ SEB 2023
Come and meet the JEB team at the Society for Experimental Biology centenary conference from 4-7 July in Edinburgh, UK. Visit exhibition stand 13/15 to pick up JEB centenary goodies, including our new ‘100 years of discovery’ T shirt, and join our Meet the JEB Editors event on Thursday 6 July at 12.30 at Platform 5 to find out more about the journal and chat to Editors including EiC Craig Franklin, Monitoring Editors Sanjay Sane, Trish Schulte and John Terblanche and the in-house News and Reviews team.
New funding schemes for junior faculty staff
In celebration of our 100th anniversary, JEB has launched two new grants to support junior faculty staff working in animal comparative physiology and biomechanics who are within five years of setting up their first lab/research group. Check out our ECR Visiting Fellowships and Research Partnership Kickstart Travel Grants. First deadline for applications is 15 July 2023.
JEB@100: an interview with Monitoring Editor Katie Gilmour
Katie Gilmour tells us how she first encountered the JEB Editorial team as a graduate student at the University of Cambridge, UK, and how she would like to have a Star Trek tricorder to monitor fish non-invasively in the field.
The Forest of Biologists
The Forest of Biologists is a biodiversity initiative created by The Company of Biologists, with support from the Woodland Trust. For every Research and Review article published in Journal of Experimental Biology a native tree is planted in a UK forest. In addition to this we are protecting and restoring ancient woodland and are dedicating these trees to our peer reviewers. Visit our virtual forest to learn more.
Centenary Review - Adaptive echolocation behavior
Cynthia F. Moss and colleagues discuss the behaviours used by echolocating mammals to track and intercept moving prey, interrogate dynamic sonar scenes, and exploit visual and passive acoustic stimuli.
Crucial DNA at crux of insect wing size evolution
Keity Farfán-Pira and colleagues have revealed that a tiny region of regulatory DNA in the vestigial gene governs whether insect wings are large or small and has played a key role in the evolution of insect wing size.