Cover: Two copulatory plugs, deposited by males at mating, distend the cloaca of a female red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). Friesen et al. (pp. 1410–1418) measured daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate in male garter snakes, and found that smaller males invest significantly more energy in copulatory plugs than larger males. A single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes up to 18% of daily energy expenditure. Copulatory plugs are crucial to male fitness in this species because they prevent sperm leakage or ejection, and also reduce the female's ability to remate. Photo credit: C. R. Friesen.
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Insight into post-transcriptional gene regulation: stress-responsive microRNAs and their role in the environmental stress survival of tolerant animals
Summary: Overview of transcriptome regulation by microRNA and its involvement in the coordination of stress survival.
High capacity for extracellular acid–base regulation in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus
Summary: Pangasius has a much higher capacity for extracellular acid–base regulation during exposure to hypercapnia compared with other air-breathing fishes.
Behavioral and mechanical determinants of collective subsurface nest excavation
Highlighted Article: The work described in the paper is the first and the most complete study of the principles underlying nest excavation behaviors of ants in vivo in 3D settings.
Predatory feeding behaviour in Pristionchus nematodes is dependent on phenotypic plasticity and induced by serotonin
Summary: Nematode predatory feeding as studied in Pristionchus pacificus acts through serotonin and is dependent on developmental plasticity that controls a mouth-form dimorphism.
Single-click beam patterns suggest dynamic changes to the field of view of echolocating Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) in the wild
Summary: Free-ranging Atlantic spotted dolphins dynamically adjust their sonar beam width to expand their acoustic field of view when approaching targets, potentially decreasing the risk of prey evasion.
Gait switches in deep-diving beaked whales: biomechanical strategies for long-duration dives
Highlighted Article: A new method for estimating the biomechanical parameters of swimming strokes from tag data reveals that beaked whales may increase efficiency by switching gaits during different phases of deep dives.
Effect of light intensity on flight control and temporal properties of photoreceptors in bumblebees
Summary: Bumblebees have both behavioural (reduction in flight speed) and retinal (reduction in response speed of the photoreceptors) adaptations to allow them to fly in dim light.
Vision in avian emberizid foragers: maximizing both binocular vision and fronto-lateral visual acuity
Summary: The visual system configuration of emberizid sparrows (single fovea, wide binocular field, high eye movement amplitude) can meet multiple sensory demands for foraging and predator detection purposes.
Proteomic analysis of cardiac response to thermal acclimation in the eurythermal goby fish Gillichthys mirabilis
Highlighted Article: Proteomic analysis of eurythermic fish Gillichthys mirabilis hearts shows significant metabolic reorganization with temperature acclimation, suggesting that the capacity to adjust ATP-generating processes is crucial to the thermal plasticity of cardiac function.
Unsteady turbulent boundary layers in swimming rainbow trout
Summary: Characterization of the unsteady boundary layer behaviour adjacent to the undulatory body surface of rainbow trout during steady swimming reveals some remarkable new phenomena.
Expression and light-triggered movement of rhodopsins in the larval visual system of mosquitoes
Summary: Mosquito larvae possess a sophisticated visual system containing five larval stemmata with two types of photoreceptors. The developing adult compound eye also contributes to larval visual capabilities.
The descent of ant: field-measured performance of gliding ants
Summary: Gliding ants exhibit variation in aerial righting phase duration, glide angle and trajectory directness, which are the principal determinants of ecologically relevant performance.
Developmental thermal plasticity of prey modifies the impact of predation
Summary: Thermal conditions experienced during early development affect survival from predation and phenotypic characteristics of prey later in life.
Size dependence in non-sperm ejaculate production is reflected in daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate
Highlighted Article: The daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of red-sided garter snakes are significantly higher in small mating males than in courting males, and a single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes 5–18% of daily energy expenditure.
Hydrodynamic sensing and behavior by oyster larvae in turbulence and waves
Summary: Turbulence and waves induce oyster larvae to swim faster upward or to dive. These behaviors are energetically costly but could reduce predation mortality and enhance larval delivery to adult habitats.
Whole-field visual motion drives swimming in larval zebrafish via a stochastic process
Summary: Initiation of swimming is based on an instantaneous evaluation of whole-field visual sensory input as opposed to an accumulation of evidence over a prolonged time.
Hummingbird flight stability and control in freestream turbulent winds
Summary: Hummingbirds are exceptional flyers that employ a combination of mean and transient flight control mechanisms to enable them to maintain flight in highly turbulent wind environments.
Effects of acceleration on gait measures in three horse gaits
Summary: Acceleration affects gait measures during walk, trot and canter in horses – force angle, collision angle and fraction are promising tools for future research.
Celebrating 100 years of discovery
We are proud to be celebrating 100 years of discovery in Journal of Experimental Biology. Visit our centenary webpage to find out more about how we are marking this historic milestone.
Craig Franklin launches our centenary celebrations
Editor-in-Chief Craig Franklin reflects on 100 years of JEB and looks forward to our centenary celebrations, including a supplementary special issue, a new early-career researcher interview series and the launch of our latest funding initiatives.
Looking back on the first issue of JEB
Journal of Experimental Biology launched in 1923 as The British Journal of Experimental Biology. As we celebrate our centenary, we look back at that first issue and the zoologists publishing their work in the new journal.
Biology Communication Workshop: Engaging the world in the excitement of research
We are delighted to be sponsoring a Biology Communication Workshop for early-career researchers as part of JEB’s centenary celebrations. The workshop focuses on how to effectively communicate your science to other researchers and the public and takes place the day before the CSZ annual meeting, on 14 May 2023. Find out more and apply here.
Mexican fruit flies wave for distraction
Dinesh Rao and colleagues have discovered that Mexican fruit flies vanish in a blur in the eyes of predatory spiders when they wave their wings at the arachnids, buying the flies time to make their escape.