CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been applied to many arthropods. However, application of this technology to crustaceans remains limited due to the unique characteristics of embryos. Our group has developed a microinjection system to introduce the CRISPR/Cas9 system into Neocaridina heteropoda embryos (one-cell stage). Using the developed method, we mutated the target gene Nh-scarlet (N. heteropoda scarlet), which functions in eye development and pigmentation. The results showed that both eye color and shape were altered in individuals in which Nh-scarlet was knocked out. Furthermore, this system was also successfully applied to another decapod crustacean, Eriocheir sinensis. DNA sequencing revealed that the zoeae with red eyes had an edited version of Es-scarlet. This study provides a stable microinjection method for freshwater crustaceans, and will contribute to functional genomics studies in various decapods.

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