The odor localization strategy induced by odors learned via differential conditioning of the proboscis extension response was investigated in honeybees. In response to reward-associated but not non-reward-associated odors, learners walked longer paths than non-learners and control bees. When orange odor reward association was learned, the path length and the body turn angles were small during odor stimulation and greatly increased after stimulation ceased. In response to orange odor, bees walked locally with alternated left and right turns during odor stimulation to search for the reward-associated odor source.After odor stimulation, bees walked long paths with large turn angles to explore the odor plume. For clove, learning-related modulations of locomotion were less pronounced, presumably due to a spontaneous preference for orange in the tested population of bees. This study is the first to describe how an odor-reward association modulates odor-induced walking in bees.

This content is only available via PDF.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview

Supplementary information