1. Fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito A. taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), when living in sea water, drink at a rate of 100 nl h(−1) larva(−1) and maintain ionic and osmotic levels in the haemolymph at about one-third those of the external medium. 2. Hyperosmotic urine is produced in the rectum by secretion of fluid having an osmotic concentration and ionic composition similar to that of sea water, with the exception that potassium levels are elevated 18-fold in the secretion. The average rate of fluid secretion observed was 19 nl h-1) larva(−1) with a maximum of 92 nl h(−1) larva(−1). 3. The concentration and volume of rectal secretion may be too low to account completely for osmotic balance. The possible role of anal papillae is discussed in this regard.

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