1. Necturus maculosus kidney function has been examined using standard clearance techniques and renal tubular micropuncture methodology. 2. Throughout, cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) has been used to monitor glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and tubular water movements. It was established that this substance was handled by the Necturus kidney in a similar manner to inulin. It can be readily analysed, together with renal electrolytes, by electron microprobe techniques. 3. Profiles of transtubular gradients (TF:P ratios) along the nephron were established for osmolarity, sodium, potassium, calcium and cobalt (of cyanocobalamin). 4. Ureteral urine is always hyposmotic with respect to plasma and the site of dilution of the plasma ultrafiltrate is within the distal segment. 5. Up to 30% of the filtrate is isosmotically reabsorbed along the proximal tubule; the tubular fluid:plasma ratio for osmolarity and sodium is around 1, and the TF:P for cobalt of cyanocobalamin is about 1.4 by the end of this segment. 6. The renal effects of the neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) and an aldosterone antagonist (SC14266; Soldactone) have been examined. 7. AVT was consistently antidiuretic causing both a decreased GFR and an enhanced distal tubular reabsorption of water. 8. SC14266 also increased distal tubular reabsorption of water. Such an effect differs from that found in higher vertebrates, and may indicate a “glucocorticoid-type” of renal action for aldosterone in amphibians.

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