Most fish species swim with lateral body undulations running from head to tail. These waves run more slowly than the waves of muscle activation causing them, reflecting the effect of the interaction between the fish's body and the reactive forces from the water. The coupling between both waves depends on the lateral body shape and on the mechanical properties of the tail. During steady swimming, the length of each myotomal muscle fibre varies cyclically. The phase relationship between the strain (muscle length change) cycle and the active period (when force is generated) determines the work output of the muscle. The muscle power is converted to thrust either directly by the bending body or almost exclusively by the tail, depending upon the body shape of the species and the swimming kinematics. We have compared the kinematics and muscle activity patterns from seven species of fish with different body forms and swimming modes and propose a model which yields a consistent pattern, with at least three extremes. Subtle tuning of the phase relationship between muscle strain and activation cycles can lead to major changes in the way muscles function in different swimming modes.

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