Eight of the 10 photophores of the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, are located at the ends of muscular stalks and exhibit coordinated orientation responses to incident white light; light emitted from the photophores is directed away from the incident light. Moreover, eye rotation occurs synchronously with photophore movement. Immobilization of one or both eyes eliminated the photophore light-following response in 40% of the trials, but in the remaining 60%, photophores continued to exhibit oriented, but less stable responses. In the presence of a stationary light source the eyes could be passively rotated without affecting photophore position. Furthermore, eye removal or covering the head with an opaque hood eliminated coordinated photophore movement. We conclude that vision is necessary for light-following responses by the photophores. In addition, the control signal for that movement is CNS-derived, may occur spontaneously or may be lightinduced, and appears to be accompanied by a parallel signal governing eye rotation. Subtle differences in photophore response when krill were oriented other than horizontally imply that krill may have a gravity sense that could help them orient in darkness.
Eye/Photophore Coordination and Light-following in Krill, Euphausia Superba
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A. D. GRINNELL, P. M. NARINS, F. T. AWBREY, W. M. HAMNER, P. P. HAMNER; Eye/Photophore Coordination and Light-following in Krill, Euphausia Superba. J Exp Biol 1 January 1988; 134 (1): 61–77. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.134.1.61
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