1. KCl-induced depolarization resulted in a large stimulation of the 45Ca efflux from both cockroach skeletal muscle and rat ileal smooth muscle. 2. Caffeine (10 mM) induced a large stimulation of 45Ca efflux from skeletal muscle, but a fall in the efflux from ileal muscle, especially if the efflux was previously stimulated by KCl depolarization. 3. Caffeine inhibited calcium uptake by skeletal muscle mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum, was without effect on ileal muscle mitochondria, but significantly increased caclium binding by ileal muscle membrane vesicular preparations. 4. The induction of contractures and stimulation of 45Ca efflux in skeletal muscle by caffeine are clearly related to inhibition of intracellular calcium binding by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. 5. The relaxation of ileal muscle by caffeine and the inhibition of fibre calcium efflux correlate well with caffeine enhancement of intracellular calcium binding. These experiments suggest that the membrane vesicular compartment may be the main agency centrally involved in fibre calcium regulation in this muscle during the contraction-relaxation cycle.

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