Shallow or near-shore environments, such as ponds, estuaries and intertidal zones, are among the most physiologically challenging of all aquatic settings. Animals inhabiting these environments experience conditions that fluctuate markedly over relatively short temporal and spatial scales. Living in these habitats requires the ability to tolerate the physiological disturbances incurred by these environmental fluctuations. This tolerance is achieved through a suite of physiological and behavioural responses that allow animals to maintain homeostasis, including the ability to dynamically modulate their physiology through reversible phenotypic plasticity. However, maintaining the plasticity to adjust to some stresses in a dynamic environment may trade off with the capacity to deal with other stressors. This paper will explore studies on select fishes and invertebrates exposed to fluctuations in dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH. We assess the physiological mechanisms these species employ to achieve homeostasis, with a focus on the plasticity of their responses, and consider the resulting physiological trade-offs in function. Finally, we discuss additional factors that may influence organismal responses to fluctuating environments, such as the presence of multiple stressors, including parasites. We echo recent calls from experimental biologists to consider physiological responses to life in naturally fluctuating environments, not only because they are interesting in their own right but also because they can reveal mechanisms that may be crucial for living with increasing environmental instability as a consequence of climate change.

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