Animals rely on their ability to perform certain tasks sufficiently well to survive, secure mates and reproduce. Performance traits depend on morphology, and so morphological traits should predict performance, yet this relationship is often confounded by multiple competing performance demands. Males and females experience different selection pressures on performance, and the consequent sexual conflict over performance expression can either constrain performance evolution or drive sexual dimorphism in both size and shape. Furthermore, change in a single morphological trait may benefit some performance traits at the expense of others, resulting in functional trade-offs. Identifying general or sex-specific relationships between morphology and performance at the organismal level thus requires a multivariate approach, as individuals are products of both an integrated phenotype and the ecological environment in which they have developed and evolved. We estimated the multivariate morphology→performance gradient in wild-caught, green anoles (Anolis carolinensis) by measuring external morphology and forelimb and hindlimb musculature, and mapping these morphological traits to seven measured performance traits that cover the broad range of ecological challenges faced by these animals (sprint speed, endurance, exertion distance, climbing power, jump power, cling force and bite force). We demonstrate that males and females differ in their multivariate mapping of traits on performance, indicating that sex-specific ecological demands likely shape these relationships, but do not differ in performance integration.

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