CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
Summary: We review evidence that normally developing tissues have physiological ER stress, and the three branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) exhibit a high level of specificity in promoting their development.
Summary: The structure–function relationship of the C. elegans P4-ATPase TAT-1 and identification of two highly conserved motifs that are especially important for the TAT-1 phosphatidylserine flippase activity.
Highlighted Article: Identification of α-catenin as the mechanotransducer that recruits Jub to junctions under tension; this recruitment of Jub is sufficient to increase Yorkie activity.
Summary: The IFT25 protein of Trypanosoma brucei is required for construction of its flagellum, a situation equivalent to the mouse sperm flagellum but not to primary cilia.
Ena orchestrates remodelling within the actin cytoskeleton to drive robust Drosophila macrophage chemotaxis
Summary: Macrophages must migrate to a variety of stimuli, including inflammatory wounds. We identify the actin-regulatory protein Ena as a master remodeller of the cytoskeleton within migrating macrophages in vivo.
Summary: How elevations of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration are detected by Weibel–Palade bodies (WPBs) remains unclear. Here, we show that synaptotagamin 5 is a WPB-associated Ca2+-sensor regulating exocytosis.
Summary: ATRX deficiency in cancer cells induces downregulation of PML, rendering the cells highly sensitive to lysis with ICP0-null mutant herpes simplex virus-1, with potential therapeutic applications.
Summary: A positive functional relationship between CLAMP and CP190 enhances gypsy-dependent insulator activities through regulation of chromatin organization in all Drosophila tissues.
Actin cytoskeleton self-organization in single epithelial cells and fibroblasts under isotropic confinement
Summary: Epitheliocytes cannot develop the F-actin patterns typically observed in fibroblasts, but can do so after treatments affecting actin polymerization. Regulators of actin polymerization, DIAPH1 and VASP, control this process.
Summary: (G4C2)n repeat RNA, associated with frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, predominantly forms paraspeckle-like bodies independently of the known paraspeckle scaffold, the long non-coding RNA NEAT1.
Summary: This study reveals a functional consequence of intratumor heterogeneity in YAP expression, and suggests that tumorigenesis benefits from competitive interactions between heterogeneous tumor cells.
Atrophy, oxidative switching and ultrastructural defects in skeletal muscle of the ataxia telangiectasia mouse model
Summary: A skeletal muscle defect is revealed as novel phenotype of Atm-knockout mice, which is relevant for ataxia telangiectasia disease studies and for the role of ATM in oxidative stress, atrophy and aging.
Summary: The excitable dynamics of Ras GTPase breaks symmetry in signaling pathways to generate asymmetric signals, which are required for spontaneous cell migration.
A Cdc42 GEF, Gef1, through endocytosis organizes F-BAR Cdc15 along the actomyosin ring and promotes concentric furrowing
Highlighted Article: Gef1 and endocytic events at the assembled actomyosin ring facilitate uniform F-BAR protein Cdc15 distribution along the ring thus enabling concentric furrow formation.
Tissue-type plasminogen activator regulates p35-mediated Cdk5 activation in the postsynaptic terminal
Highlighted Article: Here, we show that tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) regulates the synaptic expression of p35, and that tPA-induced p35-mediated Cdk5 activation preserves the structure and regulates the receptor composition of the postsynaptic density.
The PIKfyve complex regulates the early melanosome homeostasis required for physiological amyloid formation
Summary: Generation of PI(3,5)P2 by the PIKfyve complex regulates membrane remodeling of early melanosomes; this controls the import–export balance that is required for functional amyloid formation and melanosome identity.
Podoplanin regulates the migration of mesenchymal stromal cells and their interaction with platelets
Summary: Podoplanin enhances the migration of mesenchymal stromal cells in a Rac-1-dependent manner, enabling direct interactions of subendothelial stroma with circulating platelets.
Summary: Src-mediated phosphorylation at tyrosine 598 of βPix-b, a major neuronal βPix isoform, regulates its guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity that is critical for spine and synapse formation.
Repetitive switching between DNA-binding modes enables target finding by the glucocorticoid receptor
Summary: Analysis of the intranuclear mobility pattern of the glucocorticoid receptor by using FRAP and single-molecule microscopy (SMM) shows that the receptor is in a ‘repetitive switching’ mode most of the time.
Highlighted Article: Both Rab10 and its interacting proteins KIF13A and KIF13B are predominantly localized at tubular endosomes. The Rab10–KIF13 complex is likely to regulate the formation of tubular endosomes.
Desmoglein 2 mutation provokes skeletal muscle actin expression and accumulation at intercalated discs in murine hearts
Summary: By examining desmosomal cadherin-mutant mice, a link between SRF-activation and ectopic skeletal muscle actin expression is described as a novel mechanism during arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy pathogenesis.
Summary: Under conditions of hypoxia, myofibroblast differentiation is impaired through induction of ARHGAP29, also revealing a link between the HIF and MRTF-A signaling pathways.
Summary: A conserved function for RAB-6.2 in epidermis integrity in C. elegans. The mechanism of action in the skin is independent from that previously described for this protein in retrograde trafficking.
BBS4 is required for intraflagellar transport coordination and basal body number in mammalian olfactory cilia
Highlighted Article: Bbs4−/− mice exhibited reduced olfactory sensory neuron cilia length/number and basal body number, as well as miscoordination of intraflagellar transport. Ectopic re-expression of BBS4 lengthened cilia, which alone was sufficient to rescue olfactory function.