In Xenopus oocytes, activation of MAP kinase occurs during meiotic maturation through a protein kinase cascade (the MAP kinase cascade), which is utilized commonly in various intracellular signaling pathways in eukaryotes. Studies with a neutralizing antibody against Xenopus MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK), a direct upstream activator for MAP kinase, have shown that the MAP kinase cascade plays a crucial role in both initiating oocyte maturation and inducing metaphase arrest.

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