Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) occurs when cellular demand for protein folding exceeds the capacity of the organelle. Adaptation and cell survival in response to ERS requires a critical contribution by mitochondria and peroxisomes. During ERS responses, mitochondrial respiration increases to ameliorate reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. We now show in yeast that peroxisome abundance also increases to promote an adaptive response. In pox1Δ cells, which are defective in peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, the respiratory response to ERS is impaired and ROS accrues. However, the respiratory response to ERS is rescued and ROS production is mitigated in pox1Δ cells overexpressing Mpc1, the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier that provides another source of acetyl CoA to fuel the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Using proteomics, select mitochondrial proteins were identified that undergo upregulation upon ERS to remodel the respiratory machinery. The abundance of several peroxisome-based proteins was also increased, corroborating the role of peroxisomes in ERS adaptation. Finally, ERS stimulates assembly of respiratory complexes into higher-order supercomplexes, underlying increased electron transfer efficiency. Our results highlight peroxisomal and mitochondrial support for ERS adaptation to favor cell survival.

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