Summary: This Spotlight summarizes and discusses single-cell RNA-sequencing studies on mammalian brains, highlighting the remaining gaps and proposing future directions for human brain development research.
Summary: This Review summarizes the formation and function of focal adhesions, highlighting similarities and differences in how these macromolecular assemblies are used in in vitro and in vivo contexts.
STEM CELLS AND REGENERATION
DNA methylation safeguards the generation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by repression of Notch signaling
Summary: Multi-omics approaches and functional assays reveal global DNA methylome dynamics and an indispensable role of DNA methyltransferase 1 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell generation through repression of Notch signaling.
Highlighted Article: In zebrafish melanocyte regeneration, quiescent McSCs respond by re-expressing a neural crest identity, followed by an Aldh2-dependent metabolic switch to generate progeny.
Highlighted Article: This study resolves previously unidentified subsets of immature and mature thymic fibroblasts, providing further evidence that their homeostasis is controlled by signals provided by developing thymocytes.
Summary: The mechanical properties of the basement membrane of Drosophila egg chambers are mainly determined by Collagen IV.
Presenilin enhancer 2 is crucial for the transition of apical progenitors into neurons but into not basal progenitors in the developing hippocampus
Summary: Pen2 is critical for the fate determination of apical progenitors (APs) in the hippocampal neuroepithelium. Pen2 governs the transition of APs to neurons through the γ-secretase/Notch/NeuroD1 pathway.
Sperm-specific glycogen synthase kinase 3 is required for sperm motility and the post-fertilization signal for female meiosis II in Caenorhabditis elegans
Summary: GSK3 kinases are required for sperm motility and are part of a sperm-derived signal that triggers the completion of female meiosis after fertilization in Caenorhabditis elegans.
PPP4C facilitates homologous recombination DNA repair by dephosphorylating PLK1 during early embryo development
Summary: The interaction between kinases and phosphatases during the DNA damage response, and the regulatory mechanism that exists between the DNA damage checkpoint and the cell cycle.
A unique form of collective epithelial migration is crucial for tissue fusion in the secondary palate and can overcome loss of epithelial apoptosis
Highlighted Article: multiple cellular processes mediate secondary palate fusion, including a unique form of streaming collective epithelial migration driven by pulsatile actomyosin contractility.
Systematic expression profiling of Dpr and DIP genes reveals cell surface codes in Drosophila larval motor and sensory neurons
Summary: Using a range of reporter lines, expression maps of synaptic recognition molecules have been generated, which may provide insights into their function in Drosophila nervous system development.
The Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein modulates the neuronal cytoskeleton to limit dendritic arborization
Summary: Fragile X mental retardation protein regulates sensory neurons dendrite branching morphogenesis through effects on microtubule dynamics and stability, as well by controlling dendritic localization and expression of the actin regulator Chickadee.
The genetic basis of natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in Arabidopsis thaliana
Summary: Analysis of 70 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions reveals that natural variation in vegetative phase change is attributable both to miR156 and to genes that regulate vegetative traits independently of miR156.
Revisiting the role of Notch in nephron segmentation confirms a role for proximal fate selection during mouse and human nephrogenesis
Summary: Notch signaling acts in nephron segmentation to select early proximal, but not distal, tubule fate downstream of a global role in promoting epithelial growth and maturation in mouse and human.
Summary: Phytochrome-interacting factors orchestrate development of hypocotyl adventitious root by simultaneously activating genes involved in auxin biosynthesis, auxin transport and the transcriptional control of root primordium initiation.
‘Neighbourhood watch’ model: embryonic epiblast cells assess positional information in relation to their neighbours
Highlighted Article: In a large developing system, the chick embryo before gastrulation, cells may interpret gradients of positional signals relative to their neighbours to position the primitive streak, establishing bilateral symmetry.
Lmo7 recruits myosin II heavy chain to regulate actomyosin contractility and apical domain size in Xenopus ectoderm
Summary: Lmo7, an adaptor protein at apical junctions, triggers apical constriction by promoting non-muscle myosin II incorporation into actomyosin networks in Xenopus.
Functions of the FGF signalling pathway in cephalochordates provide insight into the evolution of the prechordal plate
Summary: FGF signalling inhibition in cephalochordates induces a loss of anteriormost somites. After FGFR inhibition, the presomitic anterior region cells are incorporated in the anterior notochord which transiently present prechordal plate features.