Summary: As part of our Advocacy series, this Spotlight article highlights how developmental biologists can make unique and valuable contributions to the field of metabolism and physiology.
Transposable elements, circular RNAs and mitochondrial transcription in age-related genomic regulation
Summary: Accumulating evidence highlights the links between aging phenotypes, transposable elements, circRNAs and the mitochondrial transcriptome discussed in this Review.
STEM CELLS AND REGENERATION
Evidence of two types of balance between stem cell mitosis and enterocyte nucleus growth in the Drosophila midgut
Summary: High tissue mitosis is inextricably linked to cancer predisposition. We find an antagonistic balance between intestinal mitosis and enterocyte nucleus growth, and Eiger that tilts their balance towards cell proliferation.
Summary: New mechanisms are shown for the role of two early epithelial signaling centers required for tooth development. A transcriptional network controlling stem cell proliferation and patterning is identified involving protein-protein interactions.
Summary: Histone 3 variant H3.15 deposition facilitates the removal of the H3K27me3 and leads to the de-repression of callus regulators, thereby promoting callus formation in Arabidopsis.
Vessel-derived angiocrine IGF1 promotes Meckel's cartilage proliferation to drive jaw growth during embryogenesis
Highlighted Article: This study shows IGF1 is secreted directly from endothelial cells in an angiocrine manner to instruct proliferation of Meckel's cartilage, underpinning correct jaw growth and extension during development.
PRP8A and PRP8B spliceosome subunits act coordinately to control pollen tube attraction in Arabidopsis thaliana
Summary: PRP8A/PRP8B splicing factors exhibit spliceosome autoregulation, which is necessary for successful fertilization in Arabidopsis.
Highlighted Article: In the Drosophila wing, the Argonaute family protein AGO1 acts independently of the miRNA-silencing pathway to restrict tissue growth by directly repressing transcription of the master growth regulator Myc.
Summary: Mutagenesis studies enabled the functional characterization of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk8 in X chromosome inactivation, and showed that Cdk8 is required for efficient gene repression and PRC2 recruitment by Xist.
Cell-fate plasticity, adhesion and cell sorting complementarily establish a sharp midbrain-hindbrain boundary
Summary: The process of lineage restriction at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary occurs through multiple complementary mechanisms, which are, in sequence, cell-fate specification, lineage restriction, and cell sorting.
Polarized epidermal growth factor secretion ensures robust vulval cell fate specification in Caenorhabditis elegans
Summary: The sra-9 and nlp-26 genes are required for the polarized and directional secretion of the epidermal growth factor during vulval development in C. elegans.
Assisted reproductive technologies induce temporally specific placental defects and the preeclampsia risk marker sFLT1 in mouse
Highlighted Article: Pregnancies conceived using assisted reproductive technologies are at higher risk for abnormal placentation. Using a mouse model, we investigate how individual procedures contribute to placental defects across development.
Highlighted Article: The VAPYRIN gene has evolved in plants that undergo endosymbiosis with fungi and bacteria. The nonsymbiotic moss Physcomitrella patens has retained a VAPYRIN homolog that regulates different aspects of developmental patterns.
TECHNIQUES AND RESOURCES
Summary: E-Golic+ is an efficient gene targeting pipeline in male germ cells that enriches for correctly edited progeny, achieves previously unattainable gene editing and greatly facilitates transgene swapping.
The visible skeleton 2.0: phenotyping of cartilage and bone in fixed vertebrate embryos and foetuses based on X-ray microCT
Summary: A novel protocol for staining of cartilage matrix using Ruthenium Red, which allows isotropic 3D imaging of the entire E16.5 mouse skeleton.