IN THIS ISSUE
Summary: This Hypothesis discusses the relationship between positional information and reaction-diffusion, two fundamental principles governing the arisal of structures and shapes in organisms.
Summary: This Review discusses the molecular and cellular scale mechanisms underlying the diverse roles of the Hox transcription factors during morphogenesis and organogenesis.
STEM CELLS AND REGENERATION
Highlighted article: Although classically thought to restrain proliferation, p53 promotes self-renewal in nephron progenitors of the mouse kidney and also regulates their metabolic profile.
Summary: In the muscle stem cell niche, satellite cells are apposed to pericytes which regulate their quiescence and differentiation via angiopoietin 1 and insulin growth factor 1 pathways, respectively.
Highlighted article: Wilms' tumor suppressor 1 (WT1) controls nephron numbers by regulating fibroblast growth factor signaling in nephron progenitors via Gas1, a novel WT1 target gene.
Duration of culture and sonic hedgehog signaling differentially specify PV versus SST cortical interneuron fates from embryonic stem cells
Summary: Mimicking development, production of parvalbumin versus somatostatin cortical interneurons from embryonic stem cells can be controlled just by modulating culture duration and exposure to sonic hedgehog.
Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development
Summary: Early chick embryos share previously unappreciated features with anamniote embryos such as the timing of zygotic gene activation and yolk syncytial layer formation.
Summary: During mouse spermatogenesis, the histone variants Th2a and Th2b control histone levels and cohesin release from chromatin, necessary for meiotic progression in germ cells.
Retinoic acid signaling regulates development of the dorsal forebrain midline and the choroid plexus in the chick
Summary: In the chick embryo, retinoic acid signaling controls the invagination of the forebrain roof plate and exerts a negative influence on choroid plexus development.
Accumulation of the Drosophila Torso-like protein at the blastoderm plasma membrane suggests that it translocates from the eggshell
Summary: The translocation of Torso-like from the eggshell membrane to the oocyte plasma membrane regulates the spatial and temporal control of body plan specification during Drosophila oogenesis.
Morphogenesis of the mouse neural plate depends on distinct roles of cofilin 1 in apical and basal epithelial domains
Highlighted article: In the neuroepithelium, apical cofilin 1 activates actomyosin contractility to promote neural tube closure, while basally it prevents ectopic myosin activation and tight junction formation.
Genome-wide characterisation of Foxa1 binding sites reveals several mechanisms for regulating neuronal differentiation in midbrain dopamine cells
Summary: ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq experiments identify novel molecular mechanisms underlying midbrain dopaminergic neuron production downstream of Foxa1 and Foxa2 during mouse neurogenesis.
Summary: In addition to restricting Notch activation, Lethal (2) giant discs controls egg chamber architecture and germ stem cell formation through BMP/Dpp pathway activation during Drosophila oogenesis.
Summary: Differentiation of Drosophila wrapping glia affects axonal wrapping and blood-brain barrier development through autocrine activation of the EGF receptor, similar to mammalian re-myelination after injury.
Summary: In the Drosophila brain, the fragile X mental retardation protein mediates neuron type-specific and activity-dependent changes in dendritic synaptic connectivity within the learning/memory center.
Augmented BMP signaling in the neural crest inhibits nasal cartilage morphogenesis by inducing p53-mediated apoptosis
Summary: BMP signaling levels control p53-mediated apoptosis through SMAD1/5 phosphorylation and MDM2-p53 complex formation in cranial neural crest cells, regulating nasal cartilage morphogenesis.
TECHNIQUES AND RESOURCES
Summary: An easily-applied MS2 labeling system in zebrafish allows the visualization of RNA localization in germline stem cells and zygotic genome activation in vivo.
Highlighted article: Striatal projection neurons, which degenerate in Huntington's disease, can be generated in vitro using activin A treatment, in a manner independent of sonic hedgehog signalling.