IN THIS ISSUE
Summary: This Review discusses how intrinsic regulatory mechanisms as well as extrinsic factors, such as mechanical force, regulate the extracellular matrix to control tendon development and maturation.
STEM CELLS AND REGENERATION
FGF/MAPK signaling sets the switching threshold of a bistable circuit controlling cell fate decisions in embryonic stem cells
Highlighted article: Quantitative measurements and mathematical modeling reveal the integration of transcription factor activity and extracellular signaling during fate decisions in ESCs.
Wnt/Notum spatial feedback inhibition controls neoblast differentiation to regulate reversible growth of the planarian brain
Highlighted article: Restoration of brain:body proportion after injury in planarians involves spatial Wnt/Notum feedback inhibition to control brain cell differentiation and target organ size.
DAF-18/PTEN locally antagonizes insulin signalling to couple germline stem cell proliferation to oocyte needs in C. elegans
Highlighted article: Negative feedback regulation by differentiated progeny and insulin/IGF-1 signalling provides a tissue-specific mechanism for age-related decline in germline stem cell proliferation.
COP9-Hedgehog axis regulates the function of the germline stem cell progeny differentiation niche in the Drosophila ovary
Summary: A COP9-Hh signaling axis, which partly represses BMP signaling, is required in the Drosophila ovary to control germline stem cell lineage specification within the differentiation niche.
New markers for tracking endoderm induction and hepatocyte differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells
Highlighted article: Two new endoderm-specific cell surface antibodies, HDE1 and HDE2, identify and isolate liver-fated endoderm subpopulations with high specificity in differentiating human embryonic stem cells.
Highlighted article: A specialized pool of angioblasts is the origin of the zebrafish subintestinal plexus, a structure that gives rise to the organ-specific vessels of the gut, liver and pancreas.
Summary: The Drosophila Eclosion hormone null mutant phenotype reveals an essential role for Eclosion hormone in the CNS, where it is required for Ecdysis triggering hormone to activate ecdysis.
Summary: S phase-coupled destruction of the Drosophila CDK inhibitor Dacapo mediates oscillations of Dap protein accumulation and may help to regulate endocycle frequency and polyploidization during development.
A new Xist allele driven by a constitutively active promoter is dominated by Xist locus environment and exhibits the parent-of-origin effects
Summary: The CAG promoter drives a new Xist allele, XistCAG, upregulation of which in preimplantation embryos temporally differs depending on its parental origin.
Summary: Conditional genetics in the developing mouse embryo reveals discrete spatiotemporal functions of β-catenin in taste papilla morphogenesis and taste bud differentiation.
Summary: Absence of Tag1 in mice results in fewer mitral cells in the olfactory bulb, which is associated with diminished odor discrimination ability and social long-term memory formation.
Asymmetric cell convergence-driven zebrafish fin bud initiation and pre-pattern requires Tbx5a control of a mesenchymal Fgf signal
Summary: Single-cell fate mapping and 3D cell tracking in zebrafish reveal a Tbx5a-dependent cell convergence pattern within the fin-field lateral plate mesoderm during early fin bud initiation.
Summary: Transcriptional targets of SOX9 in developing tissues mapped by ChIP-Seq reveal that SOX9 mediates cell proliferation as well as differentiation during embryonic heart valve formation.
Tropomodulin 1 directly controls thin filament length in both wild-type and tropomodulin 4-deficient skeletal muscle
Summary: Deletion of tropomodulin 4 induces compensatory upregulation of tropomodulin 1 to preserve thin filament lengths in mouse skeletal muscle. Knockdown of tropomodulin 1 results in increased thin filament lengths.
Neuropilin 1 balances β8 integrin-activated TGFβ signaling to control sprouting angiogenesis in the brain
Summary: Neuropilin 1 and β8 integrin cooperatively promote cerebral angiogenesis by mediating adhesion and signaling events between neuroepithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells in the mouse brain.
TECHNIQUES AND RESOURCES
The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans
Summary: The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system is adapted to C. elegans to enable conditional depletion of degron-tagged protein targets in as little as twenty minutes.
Summary: New fluorescent indicator alleles utilize Cre, Flp and Dre recombinases to label previously inaccessible cell populations. The complete architecture of two cell populations can be visualized in the same mouse.