The establishment of pattern and polarity in the insect egg has been studied intensively using a variety of experimental approaches. Drosophila, while the system of choice for genetic analysis of pattern formation has been rather neglected as an experimental organism and species with longer developmental time and larger eggs were preferred in classical studies. Among the dipteran insects, midges such as Chironomous and Smittia with their transparent chorion and synchronous development were found more rewarding. The classical methods of ligation, puncture, transplantation, destruction or removal of material, and centrifugation were applied to eggs of a variety of insect species. Although the degree of response to experimental manipulation was found to be widely different, there were similarities in the type of abnormal patterns produced by the various treatments which suggested more general conclusions:- the anteroposterior pattern is probably controlled by two centres of activity, localized at the anterior and posterior egg pole respectively, with a long-range effect on the entire egg axis (reviewed by Sander, 1976).
Manipulating the anteroposterior pattern of the Drosophila embryo
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Hans Georg Frohnhöfer, Ruth Lehmann, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard; Manipulating the anteroposterior pattern of the Drosophila embryo. Development 1 October 1986; 97 (Supplement): 169–179. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.97.Supplement.169
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