Perivascular fibroblasts (PVFs) are a fibroblast-like cell type that reside on large-diameter blood vessels in the adult meninges and central nervous system (CNS). PVFs contribute to fibrosis following injury but their homeostatic functions are not defined. PVFs were previously shown to be absent from most brain regions at birth and are only detected postnatally within the cerebral cortex. However, the origin, timing and cellular mechanisms of PVF development are not known. We used Col1a1-GFP and Col1a2-CreERT2 transgenic mice to track PVF development postnatally. Using lineage tracing and in vivo imaging we show that brain PVFs originate from the meninges and are first seen on parenchymal cerebrovasculature at postnatal day (P) 5. After P5, PVF coverage of the cerebrovasculature expands via local cell proliferation and migration from the meninges. Finally, we show that PVFs and perivascular macrophages develop concurrently. These findings provide the first complete timeline for PVF development in the brain, enabling future work into how PVF development is coordinated with cell types and structures in and around the perivascular spaces to support normal CNS vascular function.

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