Eosinophils, best known for their role in anti-parasitic responses, have recently been shown to actively participate in tissue homeostasis and repair. Their regulation must be tightly controlled, as their absence or hyperplasia is associated with chronic disease (e.g. asthma or inflammatory bowel disease). In the context of skeletal muscle, eosinophils play a supportive role after acute damage. Indeed, their depletion leads to strong defects in skeletal muscle regeneration and, in the absence of eosinophil-secreted interleukin (IL) 4 and IL13, fibro-adipogenic progenitors fail to support muscle stem cell proliferation. However, the role of eosinophils in muscular dystrophy remains elusive. Although it has been shown that eosinophils are present in higher numbers in muscles from mdx mice (a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy), their depletion does not affect muscle histopathology at an early age. Here, we evaluated the impact of hyper-eosinophilia on the development of fibrofatty infiltration in aged mdx mice and found that muscle eosinophilia leads to defects in muscle homeostasis, regeneration and repair, and eventually hastens death.

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