Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of our main food crops, feeding ∼3.5 billion people worldwide. An increasing number of studies note the importance of the cytoskeleton, including actin filaments and microtubules, in rice development and environmental responses. Yet, reliable in vivo cytoskeleton markers are lacking in rice, which limits our knowledge of cytoskeletal functions in living cells. Therefore, we generated bright fluorescent marker lines of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in rice, suitable for live-cell imaging in a wide variety of rice tissues. Using these lines, we show that actin bundles and microtubules engage and co-function during pollen grain development, how the cytoskeletal components are coordinated during root cell development, and that the actin cytoskeleton is robust and facilitates microtubule responses during salt stress. Hence, we conclude that our cytoskeletal marker lines, highlighted by our findings of cytoskeletal associations and dynamics, will substantially further future investigations in rice biology.

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