Gamete formation from germline stem cells (GSCs) is essential for sexual reproduction. However, the regulation of GSC differentiation is incompletely understood. Set2, which deposits H3K36me3 modifications, is required for GSC differentiation during Drosophila oogenesis. We discovered that the H3K36me3 reader Male-specific lethal 3 (Msl3) and histone acetyltransferase complex Ada2a-containing (ATAC) cooperate with Set2 to regulate GSC differentiation in female Drosophila. Msl3, acting independently of the rest of the male-specific lethal complex, promotes transcription of genes, including a germline-enriched ribosomal protein S19 paralog RpS19b. RpS19b upregulation is required for translation of RNA-binding Fox protein 1 (Rbfox1), a known meiotic cell cycle entry factor. Thus, Msl3 regulates GSC differentiation by modulating translation of a key factor that promotes transition to an oocyte fate.

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