With the advancement of cutting-edge live imaging technologies, microtubule remodelling has evolved as an integral regulator for the establishment of distinct differentiated cells. However, despite their fundamental role in cell structure and function, microtubules have received less attention when unravelling the regulatory circuitry of pluripotency. Here, we summarise the role of microtubule organisation and microtubule-dependent events required for the formation of pluripotent cells in vivo by deciphering the process of early embryogenesis: from fertilisation to blastocyst. Furthermore, we highlight current advances in elucidating the significance of specific microtubule arrays in in vitro culture systems of pluripotent stem cells and how the microtubule cytoskeleton serves as a highway for the precise intracellular movement of organelles. This Review provides an informed understanding of the intrinsic role of subcellular architecture of pluripotent cells and accentuates their regenerative potential in combination with innovative light-inducible microtubule techniques.

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